Monday, December 23, 2019
Isolation and Society in Bartleby, the Scrivener nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Herman Melvilles Bartleby is a tale of isolation and alienation. In his story, society is primarily to blame for the creation and demise of Bartleby. nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Throughout the story, the characters -- Bartleby in particular -- are isolated from each other or from society. The foresters office, which can be interpreted as a microcosm of society, was teeming with walls to separate the head ranger from his employees and to separate the employees from one another. There was one large crushed-glass wall which separated the lawyer from his sycophants (although he was still able to see their shadowsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For instance, when the Ranger decides to move his office to get rid of Bartleby, because he can no longer stand the sight of him he has the movers leave Bartlebys green screen for last. When they finally take it, Bartleby is left the motionless occupant of an empty room, an obvious sign of isolation.nbsp; Even in the vast wilderness, Bartleby is isolated.nbsp; Also, Bartleby is ultimately condemned to the Caverns (a prison), the epitome of isolation. He dies alone, curled up in the fetal position up against a wall of the prison yard, which makes him seem even more alone and isolated than he was in life. nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Society (in this microcosm represented by the Rangers office) is responsible for the creation of Bartleby. Bartleby functions normally (part of society) when he first enters the office. However, when the Ranger asks him to do something which he considers normal activity as far as society (the office) is concerned, Bartleby refuses because of his stands on environmentalism. Really, in the story, Bartleby is nothing more than the embodiment of the refusal to perform these tasks. Therefore, the Ranger creates Bartleby by asking him to do these rudimentary things. nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; Society is also largely responsible for Bartlebys demise: Bartleby has his own individualist ideas about what he should be doing (what heShow MoreRelatedBartleby, The Scrivener : A Tale Of Wall Street1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn Ã¢â¬Å"Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Tale of Wall StreetÃ¢â¬ , Herman Melville using the elements of fiction to effectively stresses the importance of communication and how isolation can negatively affect yourself and those around you. The story is about Bartleby, a lonely copyist for a lawyerÃ¢â¬â¢s office who decides that he does not feel like working anymore. We all have those days where we just do not feel like working. Your boss walks up to you, asks you to do something, and you think silently in your headRead MoreBartleby, The Scrivener : A Story Of Wall Street1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespsychotherapist, PearlsÃ¢â¬â¢ quote casts a spot light on social awareness versus self- independence and nonconformity. Similar to the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Bartleby, the Scrivener: A Story of Wall StreetÃ¢â¬ , published in PutnamÃ¢â¬â¢s Month ly Magazine in 1853 by Herman Melville. The narrator, is an elderly lawyer with a small time firm who hires a scrivener named Bartleby. In the beginning Bartleby does the work asked of him by the lawyer but as time progresses he stops working completely using the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"I would prefer not toÃ¢â¬ Read MoreEssay about Bartelby the Scrivener658 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesBartelby the Scrivener Herman Melville, an American novelist and major literary figure explored psychological themes in many of his works. Through his writing, Melville recreated a part of life that existed then, and is prevalent in our society today. Low self esteem along with self-perception and how others perceive us can be a factor leading to depression. Depression, if left untreated can become so severe that it is possible to cause someone to lose the will to live. I will clarifyRead MoreBartleby the Scrivener Essay2334 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBartlebyÃ¢â¬â¢s Isolation and the Wall Introduction: Ã¢â¬Å"Bartleby the Scrivener, A Story of Wall StreetÃ¢â¬ is a short story by Herman Melville in which the narrator, a lawyer who runs a firm on Wall Street, tells the story of a rebellious scrivener who worked for him named Bartleby. One day, Bartleby simply states Ã¢â¬Å"I would prefer not toÃ¢â¬ when asked to do his normal copying duties as a scrivener (Melville). Soon Bartleby starts sleeping and eating at the office, refusing to leave. Eventually the narratorRead MoreBartleby the Scrivener by Herman Melville Essay661 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesBartleby the Scrivener by Herman Melville Herman Melville, an American novelist and major literary figure explored psychological themes in many of his works. Herman Melville was born in 1819 in New York City into an established merchant family. The familys fortune had taken a decline that led to bankruptcy and caused insanity to enter into his fathers Life. Through his writing, Melville recreated a part of life that existed then, and is prevalent in our society today. Low selfRead MorePlot, Setting, Point of View, and Tone in Bartleby the Scrivener1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages In the short story, Bartleby the Scrivener, Herman Melville employs the use of plot, setting, point of view, characterization, and tone to reveal the theme. Different critics have widely varying ideas of what exactly the main theme of Bartleby is, but one theme that is agreed upon by numerous critics is the theme surrounding the lawyer, Bartleby, and humanity. The theme in Bartleby the Scrivener revolves around three main developments: Bartlebys existentialistic point of view, the lawyersRead MoreThe Industrial Revolution And Its Impact On Society And The Business World1668 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe industrial revolution had a significant impact upon society and the business world. This impact is keenly felt throughout Bartleby as Herman Melville tries to illus trate the strong sense of tension and dread that manifests during the industrial revolution. The source of these sensations comes from the growing influence of technology. The industrial revolution hailed a plethora of new technology all centered on business, commerce, and productivity. However, with the increasing efficiency of technologyRead MoreBlackness and Gothic depictions in American Literature1666 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesconvey a message of hope to white residents while, deflating the optimism of the soon to be freed slaves. This essay will prove that a critical reading of MelvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Bartleby, the Scrivener,Ã¢â¬ and IrvingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Legend of Sleepy HollowÃ¢â¬ utilizes representations and depictions of the gothic, the portrayal of black characters and their isolation, and blackness suggests the preoccupations of the American writer. Authors use gothic elements, metaphors and the imagination of narrators to shed light on issuesRead MoreBartleby the Autistic Scrivener Essay1689 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesshort story Ã¢â¬Å"Bartleby the ScrivenerÃ¢â¬ is about a lawyer who hires a copyist, named Bartleby, who politely refuses to not work. While most employers would not tolerate an employee who continually prefers to do less work, this lawyer finds it hard to dismiss or discipline his scrivener and allows his insubordination to go on for an extended period of time. Bartleby shows great acquisition at copying documents and works diligently all day and night. The lawyer soon discovers that Bartleby has begun toRead More Democracy in Civil Disobedience, Slavery in Massachusetts, Benito Cereno and Bartleby the Scrivener1554 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Oppression of Democracy Exposed in Civil Disobedience, Slavery in Massachusetts, Benito Cereno and Bartleby the Scrivener America has long been recognized as a democratic nation, a nation operating under the will of the people. The forefathers of America fought incessantly against British tyranny to start anew in a land of freedom and opportunity. Because America revived the ancient Greek ideology of democracy, the nation was set apart from the rest of the world and was revered for the
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Sunday, December 15, 2019
string(232) " 2005 was that it was Ã¢â¬Å"necessary to restore absolute rights of law abiding people to protect themselves, their families, and others, and their property from intruders and attackers without fear of prosecution or civil action\." Reasonable Fear of Imminent Danger: Good Social Policy? BY gotten Reasonable Fear of Imminent Danger: Good Social Policy? Giovanni Mike 4324324 LISTENED 1001 sum 13 Professor James Barney A sobering fact Is that our government has a monopoly on the use of force, but It cannot protect everyone at all times In an Immediate fashion. Joel samara, criminal Law, at 1 55 (1 lath De. 2014). We will write a custom essay sample on Reasonable Fear of Imminent Danger: Good Social Policy or any similar topic only for you Order Now Therefore, citizens are permitted to use proportional force in a Ã¢â¬Å"self-helpÃ¢â¬ fashion as long as 1. The necessity is great 2. The need exists Ã¢â¬Å"right nowÃ¢â¬â¢ 3. The force is used for prevention only. D. At 155. However, preemptive tribes or retaliation are not justifications for force used in self-defense. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 155. There are also four elements of self-defense: unprovoked attack, necessity, proportionality, and reasonable belief. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 156. The first three were alluded to earlier and are fairly self-explanatory, but reasonable belief will be the primary focus in this discussion. This element requires that a defender must have the Ã¢â¬Å"reasonableÃ¢â¬ belief that ItÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to use deadly force to neutralize an Imminent deadly attack. D, at 156. However, what Is Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fear? Ã¢â¬ How does It play out In the courtroom? Is the burden on the person using force against an aggressor to show that he or she possessed Ã¢â¬Å"reas onable fear? Ã¢â¬ Does this requirement change whether a person is at should be look into whether the person using deadly force had a Ã¢â¬Å"reasonableÃ¢â¬ opportunity to retreat and avoid violence? Should we offer civil immunity to those who used deadly force legitimately? Overall, are the recently more aggressive self- defense laws good for public policy? Do they allow those with Ã¢â¬Å"itchyÃ¢â¬â¢ trigger fingers to have a virtual license to kill, or do they take an extra necessary step to put the safety f law-abiding citizens ahead of the concerns of violent law-breakers? Newer self- defense laws, such as the one passed by Florida, unnecessarily presume Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ in defending oneÃ¢â¬â¢s home and fail to adequately consider whether a person using deadly force had a duty to retreat (in public spaces) when violence could have been easily avoided. Citizens should reasonably be expected to show that their deadly use of force was Justified due to their legitimate fear for their safety whether theyÃ¢â¬â¢re at home or in public; theyÃ¢â¬â¢re burden of proof shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be beyond a seasonable doubt since the prosecution could probably cast doubt on this with relative ease since itÃ¢â¬â¢s based on the subjective measurement of fear. Subtle wording differences in these laws can sway protections to either the aggressor or defender in these situations?itÃ¢â¬â¢s critical to strike a healthy balance. So how did we get to the self-defense laws used today? According to Joel Samara, Criminal Law, at 164 (1 lath De. 2014), since the thirteenth century English common law required that a person had to prove that heÃ¢â¬â¢d Ã¢â¬Å"retreated to the wallÃ¢â¬ before being Justified in killing another errors. The US began to reject this practice in the nineteenth century and replaced it with a Ã¢â¬Å"no duty to retreatÃ¢â¬ requirement, which holds that a person can be Justified in killing someone in self-defense. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 164. This new approach to the use of force by the common man was thought to be more accommodating to the bravery of a Ã¢â¬Å"true man. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 164. This Ã¢â¬Å"true manÃ¢â¬ was thought to be someone who would do whatever he had to do to protect his wife, kids, and the nation. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 165. Legislators and judges carved out the Ã¢â¬Å"stand your groundÃ¢â¬ rule from these previously mention values, which states that if a man didnÃ¢â¬â¢t start the fight they could stand their ground and kill in self-defense without having to retreat from a place they had a legal right to be. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 165. Also, the retreat rule was also created that obligates a person to retreat if they Ã¢â¬Å"reasonablyÃ¢â¬â¢ believe that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re threatened with death or serious harm and they are able to retreat without continuing to be subject to this danger. D, at 165. Furthermore, the Ã¢â¬Å"castle doctrineÃ¢â¬ was created as an exception to the retreat rule when the context is within someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s home, where they have no duty to retreat as Eng as they reasonably believe there is an imminent threat of death or serious bodily har m. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 165. Since 2005, more than forty states have passed or proposed new Ã¢â¬Å"castle doctrineÃ¢â¬ legislation intended to expand the right to use deadly force in self-defense. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 172. Florida was the first state to pass this type of statute, and it continues to be the model for the rest of the states. D, at 172. Their statute states that a person is presumed to have held a reasonable fear of imminent peril of death or great bodily harm if: (a) The person against whom the defensive force was used as in the process of unlawfully and forcefully entering, or had unlawfully and forcibly entered, a dwelling, residence, or occupied vehicle (b) The person who used defensive force knew or had reason to believe that an unlawful and forcible entry or unlawful and forcible act was occurring or had occurredÃ¢â¬ ¦ Old, at 172. Pennsylvania, they have a right to be in (2) they believe that the use of deadly force is immediately necessary to prevent death, serious bodily injury, kidnapping, or rape (3) the aggressor displays or uses a firearm (or replica) or any other deadly weapon. Joshua Light, The Castle Doctrine?The Lobby is my Dwelling, Volvo 22 Widener Law Journal 236 These types of laws do not exist without controversy, since there are those (2012). That claim that they give citizens a virtual Ã¢â¬Å"license to kill. Ã¢â¬ Supra, at 174. On one side, people like Marion Hammer, president of the National Rifle Association, contend that these new laws are Just protecting a right that has been around since the asses and that we shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a duty to retreat only to get chased down and beaten to death. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 174. Indeed, FloristÃ¢â¬â¢s intent when they passed their castle-doctrine law n 2005 was that it was Ã¢â¬Å"necessary to restore absolute rights of law abiding people to protect themselves, their families, and others, and their property from intruders and attackers without fear of prosecution or civil action. You read "Reasonable Fear of Imminent Danger: Good Social Policy" in category "Papers" Wyatt Holiday, The Answer to Criminal Aggression is Retaliation: Stand-your-Ground Laws and the Liberalizing of Self-Defense, Volvo 43 University of Toledo Law Review 417 (2012). Supporters of the castle doctrine-type laws recognize that there are times when the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s monopoly on violence must be set aside to allow law-abiding citizens to protect themselves when time is limited. Benjamin Levin, A Defensible Defense? : Reexamining Castle Doctrine Statues Volvo 47 Harvard Journal on Legislation 540 (2010). When an aggressor poses an immediate threat, the defenderÃ¢â¬â¢s preservation of self should take precedence over the aggressorÃ¢â¬â¢s culpability. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 539. Others like Jim Brady from The Brady Campaign believe that these laws are Ã¢â¬Å"ushering in a violent new era where civilians have more freedom to use deadly force than even the police. Ã¢â¬ Samara, Criminal Law, at 174 (2014). They also claim that these laws allow those who have an Ã¢â¬Å"itchy trigger fingerÃ¢â¬ to simply claim that they were in fear and therefore justified in using deadly force. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 174. To make things even more complex, states have their own versions of the law that are still in flux and fairly open to interpretation by courts?it is not always straightforward when someone is legally entitled to use deadly force to protect themselves. Levin, A Defensible Defense 534-536 (2010). What does Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ even mean? Unfortunately, this is not easy to answer. OhioÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction of reasonable fear is somewhat helpful: the actor using deadly force must have a bona fide belief that he/she was in imminent danger f death or great bodily harm and the only means of escape was to use deadly force in retaliation. Wyatt Holiday, The Answer to Criminal Aggression is Retaliation: Stand- Your-Ground Laws and the Liberalizing of Self-Defense, Volvo 43 University of Toledo Law Review 425 (2012). The Ã¢â¬Å"honestÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"reasonableÃ¢â¬ requirements make it seem like a hybrid objective/sub]active requirement, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s still a subjective standard as highlighted by the Ohio Supreme Court. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 424. This courtÃ¢â¬â¢s instructions on this standard recommended that to determine whether a defendant had reasonable fear of imminent danger: Ã¢â¬ ¦ U must put yourself in the position of the Defendant, with her characteristics, knowledge, or lack of knowledge, and under the same circumstances and conditions that surrounded the Defendant at the time. You must consider the conduct of [the victim] and determine if such acts and words caused the Defendant to reasonably and honestly believe that she was about to be killed or Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ is so subjective, because of t he wide range of situations people find themselves in; it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem feasible to create an objective test that measures such a subjective and virtually immeasurable emotion such as fear. Keep in mind how the law mentions that the only means of escape is the use of deadly force. Even though Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ is such a subjective concept, it still has an impact in the courtroom compared to how self-defense laws used to be written. Before Stand- Your-Ground laws came about, defendants had the burden to show that their life and limb was actually in danger. Light at 234 (2012). Now, in certain Jurisdictions, citizens have to only prove that they had a Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ that their life and limb were at jeopardy, and that they believed that deadly force was immediately necessary to peel this threat. D, at 234. This amounts to a smaller burden of proof on the defendant, which is more challenging for the prosecution because disproving facts is a lot easier than disproving perceptions. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 234. Is this a fair balance? The Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ requirement is fair since it allows the state to make an inquiry into whether deadly force was used in a legitimate fashion without putting an excessive burden on citizens to Justify their use of force that can be easily defeated by prosecuting attorneys. What about the Ã¢â¬Å"duty to retreat? Should it still play a part n todayÃ¢â¬â¢s laws? Eric Del Bozo, Retreat Does Not Equal Surrender: Defensive Deadly Force in Dwellings After People v. Keen, Volvo 82 SST. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Review 360-381 (2008) points out that the duty to retreat should still play a part in these self-defense laws, especially when retreat is a safe and reasonable option that could save a lot of violence. He concedes, however, that Ã¢â¬Å"one need not calmly evaluate exit strategies when faced with a pressing danger, for detached reflection cannot be demanded in the presence of an uplifted knife. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 364. Also, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t reasonable to focus in midnight at whether the defendant could have safely retreated, which is a reason why Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ is appropriate in order to focu s on what the person knew at the time. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 364. The way retreat is treated as an option and the thoughts of the person using force varies among states and even Jurisdictions within those states; some deemphasize the need to retreat while others focus more on the Justification of force and options for retreat. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 363-364. In 2006 alone though, between 10 and 15 states repealed their laws that required persons to consider retreat before using defensive deadly force. D, at 377. This might not bode well in a case where a person shoots his neighbor over an argument over trash bins; Del Bozo suggests that stories making headlines tend to be neighbors and acquaintances freely assaulting each other rather than repelling home invasions. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 377. However, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t offer any statistics or empirical evidence that there is a trend in unjustifiable killings due to these laws. Nonetheless, the duty to retreat still has merit to allow the whole situation to be analyzed in court, and hold people accountable who may engage in Ã¢â¬Å"senselessÃ¢â¬ killings. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 378. The prosecution should be able to show that retreat was indeed a viable option out of a respect for human life; there must be a balance between protecting the safety of both the assailant and the victim, but retreat should be looked at with the burden being on the non-aggressor. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 380. There are five different concerns that law enforcement authorities have concerning these new and more aggressive self-defense laws. One unintended consequence could be police officers since citizens Just have to claim that they have Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ in order to use deadly force. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 175. On the other hand, FloristÃ¢â¬â¢s statute contains a revision which holds that citizens are not Justified in using deadly force against law enforcement officers as long as they are acting in an official capacity, have identified themselves as a police officer, or the person using force should have Ã¢â¬Å"reasonablyÃ¢â¬â¢ known it was a law enforcement officer. D, at 173. Indiana struggled with this unintended consequence, but actually ended up ruling that citizens cannot reasonably use deadly force against law enforcement officers. Jon Laramie, Indiana Constitutional Development: Debtors, Placements, and the Castle Doctrine, Volvo. 45 Indiana Law Review, 1049-1051 (2012). In Barnes v. Tate, 946 N. E. Ad 572 (2011), the Indiana Supreme Court stated that Ã¢â¬Å"public policy disavows recognizing a common l aw right to forcibly resist unlawful police entry into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s home. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 1050. They also recognized that it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy for citizens to recognize when a given police entry is lawful or not, that injury is high due to upgrades in police equipment, and citizens have other remedies for unlawful entries (civil litigation, police disciplinary hearings, exclusionary rule, etc. ) Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 1050. The court did concede that a person has the right to Ã¢â¬Å"reasonably resistÃ¢â¬ an unlawful entry, but this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t amount to a defense of eatery or other violent acts against law enforcement. D, at 1051. The court also claimed that most other states have followed suite in this decision in the interest of law enforcement safety. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 1050. Another concern is that the interpretation of these castle-type laws is in its infancy. Some believe that law enforcement training will constantly have to adapt to changing views on these laws, and that it will be almost impossible for police officers to determine whether these new laws are being invoked [applied properly. Supra, at 176. The next concern is that instead of Just avian to determine whether danger was imminent or there was a duty to retreat in a public place, police officers will now have to anticipate more Ã¢â¬Å"self-defenseÃ¢â¬ claims. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 176. This will increase the investigative burdens on officers, and proving a negative is difficult when the evidence is Ã¢â¬Å"in the hands of the defendant. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 176. This concern is exacerbated by the fact that law enforcement agencies are often understaffed and are already overworked. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 176. Furthermore, police authorities are worried that these new laws will lead to a sort of apathy and degradation of vigilance among officers. D, at 176. They may get used to seeing Ã¢â¬Å"self- defenseÃ¢â¬ claims and may dig deep enough into every claim as these new castle-type laws call for, especially if both parties have criminal records. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 176. The last concern of law enforcement on castle-type laws are that citizens (a) will not be adequately aware of their right to use force in self-defense and (b) will be considered a deterrence by criminals who may now view them as more able to defend themselves. D, at 176. Overall, people might feel safer because they are given more latitude to protect themselves, but they may not since they might be worried about there with Ã¢â¬Å"itchy trigger fingers. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 177. Also, there is a lack of empirical evidence that shows that the positive impacts outweigh the positive negative impacts. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 177. However, the i ronic part is that we will not know if these types of laws will Ã¢â¬Å"workÃ¢â¬ unless we employ them uniformly on a generalize sample size (many states/ jurisdictions) and then evaluate them over time using sound research methods. Ensure that citizens are able to defend themselves when they legitimately need to. Nobody said it would come without any consequences at all. A legal issue with hose castle doctrine-type laws according to Elizabeth Mega, Deadly Combinations: How Self-Defense Laws Pairing Immunity with a Presumption of Fear Allows Criminals to Ã¢â¬Å"Get Away with Murder,Ã¢â¬ Volvo 34 American Journal of Trial Advocacy 105-134 (2010), is that reasonable fear and immunity can combine to create a virtual bar on prosecution for self-defense cases involving an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"castle. The state of Florida provides both a presumptive reasonable fear clause and an immunity clause; reasonable fear by itself can be rebutted by the prosecution at a later time, but i mmunity wonÃ¢â¬â¢t ever allow that to happen. D, at 108. Mega contends that such an Ã¢â¬Å"irrefutable conclusionÃ¢â¬ is unconstitutional and puts law enforcement in an awkward position to determine immunity. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 108. Also, once immunity is granted it cannot be withdrawn and someone who was entitled to immunity cannot fight for it later on. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 109. However, if someone is outside of their home they have to prove the reasonableness of their use of force before being qualified for immunity?this is presumed in cases involving the home and motor vehicles though. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 113.. Furthermore, at least in situations located at the defenderÃ¢â¬â¢s home, FloristÃ¢â¬â¢s law sakes it impossible to make the determination that the defenderÃ¢â¬â¢s use of force was unlawful. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 118. The law contains a provision that states that reasonable fear can be Ã¢â¬Å"presumedÃ¢â¬ when a person uses deadly force in the protection of their home?the police cannot make a probable cause determination. D, at 119. FloristÃ¢â¬â¢s law puts law enforcement in a situation where they have to make determinations on the spot that prosecutors would normally make: they have to make determinations of immunity and attempt to disprove a presumption rather than establish a case. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 120. Law enforcement normally investigate Ã¢â¬Å"unlawfulÃ ¢â¬ acts, but FloristÃ¢â¬â¢s law tells officers to presume that acts of violence within the home are Ã¢â¬Å"lawful. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 121 . As for how to fix these statutory issues, Mega contends that they are beyond fixing with Just guidelines and require rewording. Police could become so dependent on the guidelines that they may fail to see the big picture, defendants could end up in Jail trying to assert immunity, law enforcement may not understand the guidelines, and law enforcement have to engage in prosecutorial duties that they were not trained to do. D, at 130. Although Ã¢â¬Å"immunityÃ¢â¬â¢ certain presents more problems, what about Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ itself? Mega claims that the previous duty to retreat laws still allowed someone to use force, but only when there is no safe method of retreat. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 115. In this way, common law held the respect for life on a higher level than the right to possess and use a gun. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 115. However, with the new castle-type laws individuals can now react violently with little incentive to try and diffuse the situation by safely retreating. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 115. The duty to retreat makes someone think twice about sing force instead of harming someone before considering whether an actual threat exists. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 116. With these new Stand Your Ground and castle-type laws, individuals are authorized to act violently in the face of a Ã¢â¬Å"perceivedÃ¢â¬ threat, which is very subjective and open to interpretation. D, at 129. In Florida, however, the law allows the state to prosecute individuals when probable cause is established that the force used was unlawful, at least outside of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s home. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 130. This type of provision who use deadly force in a senseless or reckless manner without giving reasonable Hough into whether theyÃ¢â¬ â¢re really facing impending danger. As mentioned earlier though, in the heat of the moment peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions and their ability amount to think clearly in these intense situations will vary. How does Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ play out in the context of a Jury trial? Stay Lee Burns, Demonstrating Ã¢â¬Å"Reasonable FearÃ¢â¬ at Trial: Is it Science or Junk Science? Department of Sociology, Loyola Martyrdom University, Los Angles, CA 107-131 (2008) examined one murder trial in depth that involved reasonable fear. In this case, the Maddened brothers were charged and invoiced of first degree murder for shot-gunning their parents in their own home in August 1989. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 109. During the trial, they confessed to parricide but claimed they held reasonable fear because of their prior sexual abuse by their father and acted in self-defense Justification defense). D, at 110. The Jury deadlocked at the first trial, which indicates the ambiguousness that reasonable fear can have at trial. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 129. The defense proposed expert testimony that would show that the abuse the defendants underwent altered their mental state at the time of the killings because heir susceptibility to fear and perception of imminent danger were heightened. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 1 12. U Timely, the Judge did not allow expert testimony pertaining to what happened in the Maddened brothersÃ¢â¬â¢ situation, but could attempt to generalize prior research on fear perception. Although there has been research on the limbic system, the part of the brain that processes fear, for the lastly years the results are far from conclusive and there is no test available that can show what the Maddened brothersÃ¢â¬â¢ fear levels were at the time of the killing or whether their susceptibility had indeed been heightened because of trauma. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 118- 127. Social science is only able to provide statistics and the likelihood that the Maddened brothers would act a certain way in a given situation. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 122. There is a blood test available that can give insight into what a personÃ¢â¬â¢s level of fear is, but the sample would have to be taken right at the moment of the crime (not feasible). Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 124. This case illustrates the tension between social science and the Judicial system that requires facts to relate to the particular case at hand. Ã¢â¬Ëd, at 128. It came down to what the Jury felt was Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fear,Ã¢â¬ and how much they thought the expert testimony applied to the Maddened ease?itÃ¢â¬â¢s no surprise that the Jury ended up deadlocked. D, at 128-129. In conclusion, the Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ requirement is fair since it allows the state to make an inquiry into whether deadly force was used in a legitimate fashion without putting an excessive burden on citizens and giving too much of an advantage to prosecuting attorneys. Although Ã¢â¬Å"duty to retreatÃ¢â¬ shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be strictly imposed or evaluated in hindsight, it is still applicable in situations where violence could have been easily avoided by practically walking away. While there are legitimate concerns such as Alice safety in no-knock searches with these more aggressive self-defense laws, the sad fact remains that little empirical evidence is out to date that shows any negative or positive trends associated with these laws. In addition, these laws and their interpretation are still in their infancy and are written differently among the states and their Jurisdictions. A legal issue that may not be empirically measurable, however, is how reasonable fear can be paired with immunity to create a bar on prosecution of those defending their home perhaps too readily. These people should burden of proof that can easily be discredited. Additionally, this presumption would leave police officers with the difficult task of making determinations on the spot that would normally be left to prosecuting attorneys. As for immunity, citizens should be granted immunity from civil litigation if their use of deadly force was Justified; they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be mired with legal action from the aggressor after theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve already been in court. The Maddened case illustrates the limitations of science to prove reasonable fear in a court setting, and can only offer potential generalizations and statistics. Bottom line, Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable fearÃ¢â¬ ends up getting determined by Juries, which ay not be that easy or uniform. Overall, the new and more aggressive self-defense laws are good for public policy with the exception of the presumption of reasonable fear in situations involving defending oneÃ¢â¬â¢s home. These laws necessarily give citizens more latitude in defending themselves without an undue burden of having to sit there and think about whether they should retreat or fear of future civil litigation. However, those who are inclined to resort to violence in the face of any perceived threat need to justify their actions in order to prevent senseless killings. They should only have to how that they had reasonable fear without a heavy burden of proof that prosecutors can easily defeat, which could be the beyond a reasonable doubt standard. An understandable concern is that these new laws will put a further burden on an already stressed and backlogged criminal Justice system, but we cannot put police officers in a position to try to make these determinations on the spot. We also cannot allow potential senseless killings to go unchallenged. Omitting the presumption clause and putting a little more emphasis on retreat options can better balance the defenderÃ¢â¬â¢s right of safety and the aggressorÃ¢â¬â¢s culpability. How to cite Reasonable Fear of Imminent Danger: Good Social Policy, Papers
Posted by Whitney Beaudry at 5:54 PM
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Questions: 1. Access GB Careers through the GB website. Write a summary of 2 items that you found very helpful for you on the site to support your career planning and could help you develop your career plan.2.Access Career Coach. Go to the GB site and do a search for 'Career Coach'. Write a summary of 2 items that you find helpful for you on the site to support your career planning.3.For question #1 and question#2 above respond to at least 2 colleagues thoughts on GB Careers and Career Coach( you will have at a minimum 2 replies). Think about what they have talked about and comment if that information is useful for you or maybe you have a question ...., for your colleague.Both sites talk about resumes. You have to start thinking about your resume and developing one. There are various templates online. Please look at them and try to fiqure out which one is best for you. If you already have a resume, how can you improve it?4. On Blackboard answer the following question: if you have a resume, how can you improve it?----if you don't have a resume what style of resume would represent your background well?Take a look at the resumes that the different resources at George Brown offer you and other sites we have looked at so far in class. How about TalentEgg and Career Joy. Answers: 1. (GB) career is an online job discovery website, with various employment programs to help students and jobseekers. The website has various platforms to help the jobseekers find the best job option for themselves (George Brown College, 2017). One of the best features of this website is the peer employment program that offers various job profiles with flexible schedule for the convenience of full time students (George Brown College, 2017). The program is designed to help the students develop skills, professional competency and build resilience for the hardships and challenges of the corporate world. The on-site job options provide the students a broad window of working up to 15 hours a week. It provides the students with ample opportunities to concentrate on their coursework along with earning a substantial amount to support themselves (George Brown College, 2017). Another attribute of the website is the optimal resume option provided by the website that helps the students and jobseekers construct striking resumes that catch the attention of employers easily (George Brown College, 2017). The optimal resume interface offers expert advice, optimal resume templates, and even interview tutorials. 2. George Brown College launched a research tool named career coach on January 5, 2015, that enables the students to access the up-to-date labor market information (CareerCoach, 2017). Such one-stop database research tools are extremely beneficial for the students to find the current trends in the job market and develop skills in accordance with them. Another important feature of this interface is that it gives the jobseekers the option to do a systematic search on your chosen career option (CareerCoach, 2017). In details, it enables the students to search for vacancies for on-campus jobs in their chosen career and then provides them the opportunity to find out the possible professional options that the program can lead to according to the industry trends (CareerCoach, 2017). I feel that it is a commendable initiative from the website that not only lets student find jobs in their career preference on campus but also determines what the future possibilities in our chosen field are. 3. Both the websites catch the attention of the job-seeking students positively, when approached two of my colleagues, both gave me quite similar reactions ("George Brown College", 2017). According to both of them, the career coach is the best option, impressed by the innovative features. In the current scenario, where every occupational sector is saturated, it is vital to have a clear perception about the possibilities of growth in the chosen career field. This specialized program will let us decide if our chosen field has the scope for us to attain the financial stability of our perception, and gives us an insight to determine if we want to take risks in worst-case scenarios, or if we want to switch ships. 4. GB careers and Career Coach, both the websites deals with career development advices, while GB career has a generic response, Career Coach has a very specific approach, and hence, undoubtedly it is the best option to search for jobs (CareerCoach, 2017). However, the next big step, post the selection of right career option, is constructing a resume. George Brown website offers various templates in its optimal resume interface. First option is to start the resume construction from the scratch, section by section, meticulously. Second option is to browse different resume samples, select one as per convenience and directly input the information into the template. I find that the second option is easier and more time saving and creates a professional and customized resume with advanced styles and formats. Apart from these two websites, two other websites deserve to share the spotlight in effective career development. One of them is the TalentEgg, which provides a customized resource interface called go to incubator that has different resources to develop a resume (TalentEgg, 2017). Another is CareerJoy, a Canadian website that provides resume coaches that offer complementary resume reviews and affordable packages (Careerjoy, 2017). Reference List: CareerCoach - For High-Achieving Professionals | Executive Coaching. Career Development Coaching. MBA Coaching. Assessments. We have an insider's perspective.. (2017). Careercoach.com. Retrieved 4 February 2017, from https://www.careercoach.com Careerjoy | Canada's Career Counseling | Career Counselor | Career Change | Career Advice | Career Test | Career Coach | Resume Writing | Career Expert | Career Change | Interview | Job search. (2017). Careerjoy.com. Retrieved 4 February 2017, from https://www.careerjoy.com George Brown College. (2017). Georgebrown.ca. Retrieved 4 February 2017, from https://www.georgebrown.ca TalentEgg.ca - Find Entry Level, Student Jobs, Internships, Summer Jobs. (2017). TalentEgg. Retrieved 4 February 2017, from https://www.talentegg.ca
Posted by Whitney Beaudry at 2:38 PM
Saturday, November 30, 2019
Shakespeare And Immortality The search for immortality has troubled philosophers since the dawn of human race. Numerous historic figures, including Ramses XV of Egypt and Julius Caesar of Rome, have tried to achieve physical immortality through various superficial measures. Magicians of the ancient kingdoms have struggled to find a way to stop the aging process of a human being. All those attempts have proved to be unsuccessful and as of today there is no proven method that enables a person to live forever. However, the Renaissance age brought radical changes to human perception of life. No longer a person could remain passive about the course that their life takes. Renaissance man was expected to strive for higher achievements in every aspect of life. This included political, financial and cultural aspects. These ideas paved way for a new concept of immortality - immortality through art. Da Vinci painted "Mona Lisa" and became immortal through legacy that he left behind him. Beethoven wrote his "5th Symphony" and he is still remembered for it. These ideas of eternal life were mirrored in poetry of William Shakespeare - the Renaissance man of England. In a number of his sonnets Shakespeare talks about immortality from diverse points of view. It is a wonder how Shakespeare can take an issue and approach from different perspectives and each time the same issue is presented in new light, and charged with new emotions. There are two basic ways in which Shakespeare relates to the idea of immortality. In first approach the author describes eternal life through a chain of comparisons and multiple meanings of the same words. In sonnet number 5 poet associates a person with a flower. A flower that is beautiful in its younger years yet as the time Will play the tyrants to the very same, And that unfair which fairly doth excel; (5.3-4) it makes unattractive that which now excels in beauty, and eventually leads to flower's death. The sonnet goes on to mention the process through which fragrances are extracted from flowers, and it further states that even after the flower is long gone, it is remembered every time someone recognizes its sweet smell. In this poem, Shakespeare makes a direct comparison with real life, because just as a plant is remembered for its attractive smell, people are remembered for their good deeds even long after their death. Similar ideas are presented in sonnet number 54. In this sonnet the author talks about people who are beautiful on the outside, but empty and unattractive inside. The poet states that as life goes on, the outer beauty fades, and death follows, and only those people who were more then empty shells, will be remembered. And so of you, beauticius and lovely youth, When that shall fade, by verse distills your truth. (54.13-14) Another way through which Shakespeare perceives immortality is by writing directly about it. There is a number of poems in the author presents eternal life in plain and precise language. In sonnet number 15 the author says, And all in war with time for love of you, As he takes, I engraft you new. (15.14-15) It is obvious that what poet means is that even though time makes people older, poetry can rejuvenate a person by bringing back memories about the past. It can even resurrect a dead person in human mind, every time that the poem about that person is read. In his writings, Shakespeare truly believes that poetry brings immortality to people. In sonnet number 16 he writes, But wherefore do not you a mightier way Make war upon this bloody tyrant, time, And fortify yourself in your decay With means more Blessed the my barren rhyme (16.1-4) thus asking a simple question, "What better way to immortalize yourself then through poetry?." Eternal life seems to be perceived by the writer as a gift from beyond, a blessing that only a few chosen will receive. It can be traced further in sonnet number 18, which states that once a poem about someone is written, that person is immortal for as long as human eyes can see. This is a very optimistic approach to poetry but it raises some questions. Besides the fact that a person must be able to see in order to read, a person should also have at least nominal interest in what he is reading. Shakespeare tends to overlook this fact. Finally in Sonnet number 55 the writer states, Not marble nor the guilded monuments Of princes shall outlive the powerful rhyme, (55.1-2) This is a
Posted by Whitney Beaudry at 2:20 AM
Monday, November 25, 2019
Barclays Bank believes that university students are an extremely valuable segmentation for business banking markets. The WritePass Journal
Barclays Bank believes that university students are an extremely valuable segmentation for business banking markets. Introduction Barclays Bank believes that university students are an extremely valuable segmentation for business banking markets. IntroductionÃ I.Ã Ã Research ObjectivesResearch ProcessÃ II.Ã Ã Research QuestionsDefined the Research QuestionsResearch Questions for this ProposalIII.Ã MethodologyResearch PhilosophyResearch Philosophy for this ProposalResearch MethodResearch Method in this ProposalIV.Ã Research DesignDefined Five Research DesignResearch Design for this ProposalÃ V. Ã Ã Data Collection DesignDefined the way of Data CollectionData Collection Design in this proposalÃ VI.Ã Ã Ã SamplingSampling methodSampling method used in this proposalQuestionnaire Design in this proposalVII. Collection DataDefined the method of data collectionVIII.Ã Data Analysis ProcessDefined Data AnalysisData Analysis in this proposalIX.Ã BudgetX.Ã Ã Ã RecommendationsConclusionsBibliography BibliographyRelated Introduction Barclays Bank believes that university students are an extremely valuable segmentation for business banking markets, but the business of banking services is intensely competitive. In order to Barclays Bank attract more university student customers and to keep them in a long term, Barclays requires understanding the target market, what are universities students in the UK Ã¢â¬Å"needs and wantsÃ¢â¬ . By describing the research process, the objectives of this market research will be notified. Following with the research questions and research design and method details will be formed. In addition, this research proposal is helping Barclays to increase its market share, and using market research to ensure Barclays provide the right product and services to the UK students target market. Ã I.Ã Ã Research Objectives The main objective of this research proposal for Barclays Bank is to achieve the target which can provide the right products or services to university students in the UK and understand what are their Ã¢â¬Å"needs and wantsÃ¢â¬ for bank account. Otherwise, we will add value propositions to attract more students for Barclays and keep these customers over time. This has divided into the following objectives: To understand the reason that students choose Barclays as their first bank account. To investigate what feature would be considered when university students start a new bank account. To inspect the property for Barclays banking services can attract new university students. To increase university student account market. To ensure the graduate students will continue obtain their bank account. Research Process According to Kumar (2005), a well managed severe, systematic, reliable, demonstrable, experimental, and critical is substantial research. In the next parts, it will describe the following research process for Barclays Bank. Kumar (2005) has defined those eight steps for process of research, which is shown in Figure 1: The following research will be chosen some parts for the proposal. Ã Ã Figure 1 Research Process (Kumar, 2005) Ã II.Ã Ã Research Questions Defined the Research Questions According to Saunder et al. (2007) research design questions are related for many aspects: ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã What intrigues me? ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Why am I doing it? (Is it a contribution to knowledge?) ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã What models, frameworks, etc? ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã How am I going to collect data? Research Questions for this Proposal In this research, the title Ã¢â¬Å"Barclays Bank and targeting University StudentsÃ¢â¬ is being chosen the object of research and analysis. Otherwise, the questions are to understand student customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and wants. By using questions can get information that can utilise on market decision. There are four main research questions that can be developed and easily to understand this research objective. Which bank is your first account? What bank features would attract university students? What bank services would customers need? What reason would affect customers to continue their account? III.Ã Methodology Grinnell (1993) has pointed out that the word Ã¢â¬Å"researchÃ¢â¬ can define as Ã¢â¬Ëa structured inquiry that utilises acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and creates new knowledge that is generally applicableÃ¢â¬â¢. Methodology sections will separate into two factors which are research philosophy and research method. Research Philosophy In research philosophy area, the research methods are discussed ontology and epistemology commonly. According the theory, both of methods are related to philosophical perspectives. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ontological perspective: The researchers can discover the essence of knowledge which exists in the world (Snape Spencer, 2003). ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Epistemological perspective: The perspective is to discuss what knowledge can be believed (Bryman Bell, 2007). Research Philosophy for this Proposal For this research, it utilises the epistemological aim to help the proposal to find out the right services, which may provide Barclays Banks to attract more university students. In addition, to understand the purchased behaviour by students, it may use EKB model on research survey to realise BarclayÃ¢â¬â¢s customers. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã EKB model: Engel et al. defined EKB model in 1978. EKB model will be the method for survey, and it can help to realise customers buying behaviour on decision-making. Engel et al. (2001), defined five steps that consumers decided to purchase the products, which are shown in Figure 2. These steps are showing the process of purchase behaviour by customers. Figure 2 EKB five steps (Engel et al. 2001) Research Method In order to find out the value propositions for Barclays Bank, the main two research methods which are qualitative research method and quantitative research method will be considered in this proposal. Quantitative and qualitative research methods are the two ways usually use in the research area. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Quantitative research method: This method is to collect quantifiable data and make it from objective views to produce the final results (Bryman Bell, 2007). ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Qualitative research method: This method is focus on understand and describe peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ perspectives to create a logical outcome (Snape Spencer, 2003). Creswell (2003) point out that how to choose a research method in the analysis research, which is based on the target audiences or past experiences. In addition, customersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour may affect their purchase decision. According to Engel, Kollat and Blackwell theory, EKB model is the basis of decision-making process for customer behaviour, and this process is referred to the actual consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ cognitive thinking when they purchase products. That is to say, EKB model is one of important elements to understand what customersÃ¢â¬â¢ thinking when they have decision-making situations. Research Method in this Proposal ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Quantitative research method was identified to be more suitable for this research. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Quantitative questioning will be used in the proposal. All quantitative questions will be shown in Appendix. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Using EKB model in questionnaires and it will be shown in Appendix as well. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Likert scale will be one of the parts in the questionnaires, Likert scale will be used in most of questionnaires. The typical five levels for Likert item are: Strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree, agree, strongly agree. IV.Ã Research Design Defined Five Research Design There are five kinds of research design different purposes such as, ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Experimental design: This main concept of design is to analysis of qualitative or quantitative research which can examine the differences and form the foundation (Bryman Bell, 2007). ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cross-sectional design: This design is usually used in quantitative research (Kumar, 2005). ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Longitudinal design: Longitudinal design is a study to determine the amount of changes (Bryman Bell, 2007). ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Case study design: Only single instance will be studied in the most case, and details related to that case will be collected. This model is suitable for qualitative research (Bryman Bell, 2007). ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Comparative design: The research can be seen as the comparative design which has consisted of more than one case and to compare or evaluate the differences or similarities (Bryman Bell, 2007). Research Design for this Proposal As for BarclayÃ¢â¬â¢s research, the aim is to add value propositions that can utilise in marketing decision. To consider of this research design, this research is to find out the customers behaviour for university students in the UK and to the collect a certain number of different information is needed to support for this research. This research would follow case study and collection data in order to have a deeper understanding of the impact on value propositions from the research, obtaining the appropriate strategy by the UK university studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ requirements. Moreover, the EKB model and Likert scale discussed previously will be the fundamental theories to analyse the survey data. Ã V. Ã Ã Data Collection Design Defined the way of Data Collection According to Kumar (2005), data collection can be use in observations, interviews, and questionnaires these possible ways. The advantages of interviews are that when researchers are helpless to fulfill participants, researchers still can see specific information from interviewees, and interviewees can describe Ã¢â¬Å"historyÃ¢â¬ which is suitable to the research case of topic to wider and deeper understanding (Creswell, 2003). In addition, researchers can be more flexible by asking questions which is comparing with interviews questionnaires (Bryman Bell, 2007). For research, the direction we need to see is the students consideration when they opening a new account. Qualitative research strategy in interview is too unstructured than in the quantitative research design. Researchers can an unstructured interview, which is more like a general chatting and more similar to having conversations with interviewees; researchers have to make a discussion guide with which has listed questions to understand (Bryman Bell, 2007). Data Collection Design in this proposal The collection of the information is to be the first step of data collection. The data focus on the bank services and marketing decision. In addition, there are three methods that will be use to collect the require data. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã First approach :Face-to face ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Second approach :Telephone ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Third approach :Mail by post or email However, using three methods are too complicated to this research; Table 1 is shown the compare results. Compare Mail by post Telephone Face-to-face Budget Low Low High Flexible Need address Need phone number Go to every university Ask Questions Less questions Less questions More questions Validity Low Low High Non-response error High Low Low Collect Time Long Short Long Table 1 Comparison ofthree kinds ofinvestigation methods. After the compare evaluation, the mail survey approach is most appropriate to investigation of this study, these reasons are: ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This study research has budget consideration and restriction. Mail by post may be the lowest cost for the required questionnaires. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The mail or email address from interviewee is easy to obtain. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The questionnaires cannot be too long, but it is clear to see on mail. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The validity by mail questionnaire is low. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The mail questionnaires may have a high rate of non-response bias, but it can improve by send more mails. This action may help to reduce the rate of return non-response bias. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The mail survey, takes a long time, but it may not influence the data results. Ã VI.Ã Ã Ã Sampling Sampling method According to Patton (1990), the sampling method can be defined like Ã¢â¬Ëcriterion samplingÃ¢â¬â¢ and the sampling is adopted in this research. It will find samples from criteria that receive research objectives. This sampling method also can ensure that the interviewees are supplied with complete information feedback that is required in the research (Patton, 1990). Using the Sampling method in the qualitative research can be same as in quantitative research, for instance, random sampling method. Most of the samplings in qualitative researchers are with some purposes or criteria since sampling may affect the outcome significantly (Coyne, 1997). However, the sample size is required in qualitative research; the result is not larger than quantitative research. Researchers are using purposeful sampling to acquire sufficient knowledge interviewees who can present the related research topic, and help researchers to get wider and deeper view points from interviewees (Patton, 1990). Sampling method used in this proposal There are several sampling methods that can adopt in survey research. For research, random sampling will be chosen as the research method. Following elements are the approaches for sampling: ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Element: Target market , all the UK university students. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Population: Estimate5000 university students. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Sampling Units: Collection of about 5000 survey elements from the population. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Frame: A frame is a list of sampling units, same as 5000 sampling units. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Select sampling methods: Random sampling. Questionnaire Design in this proposal SNAP is an assistance software tool that can create questionnaires. This questionnaire will divide into three sections: ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã First part: Personal information for Interviewees University students in the UK or not. Demand for the services. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Second part: IntervieweesÃ¢â¬â¢ personal bank. First bank account. Bank name, it is Barclays or not. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Third part: Using EKB model to design questionnaire (Likert scale will be used). Banking service satisfaction. Bank Loyalty. VII. Collection Data Defined the method of data collection The approaches to collect data have mention in front of part. That is, there are kind of ways can use in interviews. Interviews can be face-to-face, through telephone, or gather a lot of people to do the interview at the same time, which is also known as priority group (Creswell, 2003). Data Collection in this proposal ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Collection data will follow the front part which decides to choose mail by post method to collect to necessary data. ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã There are 5000 surveys will be sent by mails and emails. (2500 mails by post, 2500 by emails) ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Following data collection time divided into two main stages. Collection time will be a month. First stage is to collect post mail will from 1st of June 2011 to 16th of June 2011. Although first stage is to collect post mail, email questionnaires feedback may return as the same time. Moreover, this period of time will continue collection data until 30th of June 2011. These stages are shown in Table 2. Main stages Time Activity First stage Ã 1st June 2011- 16th June 2011 Collect mail by post from interviewees Second stage 1st June 2011- 30thJune 2011 Collect email from interviewees Table 2 Survey Collect Time VIII.Ã Data Analysis Process Defined Data Analysis In the qualitative research validity can be seen from three ways, which are descriptive validity, interpretive validity, and theoretical validity; or to consider from another aspect which can be classified as internal validity and external validity (Johnson, 1997). ÃÅ¸Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Validation of research Validity is divided into three types, including content validity (Content Validity), criterion validity (Criterion Validity) and construct validity (Construct Validity). Content validity: The primary purpose is to systematically check the appropriate of questionnaires; the questionnaires consider the samples and conduct appropriate proportion. Criterion validity: It is outside test criterion with the assessment based on the correlation coefficient. Criterion validity refers to test data which has been found, also name as the statistical validity. Construct validity: It refers to the test the measure theoretical construct or common quality level which observed variables and other theoretical consistency. Data Analysis in this proposal In this research, SPSS will be use in data analysis. As for the collect data, all questionnaires will be recorded and transcribed. The benefit of doing transcription is to help researchers who can get all details mentioned and to re-examine the data afterwards. The process of data will firstly help researchers to organised and it enabled to rethink and restructure the following analysis stages. At the same time the second stage data were collected and filed. In this data collection, the clearer idea information between data and final findings will be formed, and it will shown data analysis to support results. IX.Ã Budget With the research process, the budget will come with it. Higdon Topp (2004) has pointed that, to reach the project objectives of timeline and methodology, the research proposal budget is intertwined with its development. Therefore, the detail of the budget will be notified. The budget of details required to expense to a complete itemized accounting list for the project (Higdon Topp, 2004). The budget table3 and 4 will displayed the total research fees. Table 3 Worksheet Personnel Role Salary/month Smith Principle investigator Ã £3000 Brown Co investigator Ã £2750 Tsou Statistician Ã £2750 The research plan will spend one month. Table 4 Equipment Phase Description Fee Mail by postÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2500 mail lettersÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã £500.00Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2500 stampsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã £1250.00 Email 2500 email Ã Ã £0 Data collection and analysis will consume a month as well. TotalÃ fees Ã Ã £10250.00 Timeline Date Activity 21st May 27th May Proposal Needed 28th May- 30th May Survey Development 1st June- 30th June Data Collection 2nd July Ã¢â¬â 6th July Statistical Data 8th July Final Report X.Ã Ã Ã Recommendations Here are some reasons that our team should be chosen. Our research team provides complete the research methodology and Data Collection. The objects reflect the goals and orientations of the organisation. Our agency wish to submit Barclays Bank with a compelling demonstration that has effectively represents. The research results will reflect new projects and interests, and provide for both current clients and new in customers. We can discuss this plan at your convenience.Ã Ã Conclusions The valuable segmentation for Barclays Bank business banking markets is university students, however, the business banking competitive. Barclays Bank wants to attract more student customers and keeps them in over time. This research proposal starts from research process. Quantitative research method is adopted and the data collection is through by mail interviews. Then, the secondary data is from journals, articles, books. Finding of the research will help Barclays to increase its market share, and the market research will ensure Barclays provide the right product and services to the UK students target market. Bibliography Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2003) Business Research Methods, Oxford University Press. Cresswell, J.W. (2009) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 3rd ed. Sage Publications. Coyne ,I .T. (1997 ) Sampling in qualitative research. Purposeful and theoretical sampling; merging or clear boundaries? Journal of Advanced Nursing , 26(3),623Ã¢â¬â630. Engel, J. F.,R. D. Blackwell P. W. Miniard (2001 ) Consumer Behavior 9th ed. Fort Wort: Drvden Press. Higdon,J.and Topp,R. (2004) How to Develop a Budget for a Research Proposal. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 26(8) 922-929. Johnson ,R. B. (1997)Examining the validity structure of qualitative research. Research Library 118 (2) 282. Kumar, R. (2005) Research Methodology: A Step-by-step Guide for Beginners. London: Sage Publications. Patton, M. Q. (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods ,2nd ed., Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Saunders, Lewis Thornhill (2007) Research Methods for Business Students, FT Prentice Hall Snape, D. and Spencer, L. (2003) Qualitative Research Practice: A guide for Social Science Students and Researchers, London: Sage Publications. Bibliography Barclays Bank WebsiteÃ barclays.co.uk/PersonalBanking/P1242557947640 Online Survey Software: SurveyMonkey WebsiteÃ surveymonkey.com/MySurveys.aspx
Posted by Whitney Beaudry at 11:24 PM
Friday, November 22, 2019
A Comparative Analysis Of Langston Hughess The Negro Speaks Of Rivers And Sandra Cisneross House On Mango Street
A Comparative Analysis Of Langston Hughes's The Negro Speaks Of Rivers And Sandra Cisneros's House On Mango Street The House on Mango Street History repeats itself in more ways than one and this statement reigns true for almost all aspects of life and this especially holds true with war. Over and over again we see destruction promises of repair and then many decades later another war emerges with the same carnage and promises. The most famous example of this would be Napoleon invading Russia and Hitler invading Russia and the outcome was the same for both men and armies. The repetition that is most prevalent and either undermined or discarded though is the treatment of people and in particular minorities. The treatment of minorities and people of darker color is so outlandish and is visible throughout the world in countries and the whole continent of Africa which faced brutal imperialism and slave trading a couple hundred years ago. This quote worn on a shirt of famous rapper and Outkast member AndrÃ © 3000 saying Ã¢â¬Å"Across cultures darker people suffer most. Why?Ã¢â¬ This quote reiterates the idea that darker ski nned people face more scrutiny and have a harder time in life than those of fairer skin. America is the home of thousands of nationalities and ethnicities from all over the world but it is harder for immigrants and minorities to find their identity and make something of themselves while being happy and different but still holding on to their roots in from other countries but still being proud to be American. These struggles are no more prevalent and no more accurate than in the novel Ã¢â¬Å"House on Mango StreetÃ¢â¬ by Sandra Cisneros and the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ by Harlem Renaissance writer Langston Hughes. These two bodies of work detail the life of African Americans in the United States and a young Latina woman in the United States and their struggles of finding themselves and knowing where they came from while still moving forward in life and dealing with their hardships. In one of the outside sources which is titles Ã¢â¬Å"Straddling Boundaries ident ity culture and schoolÃ¢â¬ talks about kids struggling to find themselves and speaks on being able to find themselves in places like school where they learn about their history and their past. The other article Ã¢â¬Å"In search of identity in Cisneross The House on Mango StreetÃ¢â¬ it does focus on the main character EsparanzaÃ¢â¬â¢s life in America and all she has to deal with along with being a preadolescent female but struggling with the problems and unjust obstacles life has to offer and she has trouble finding herself and identifying herself and who she is in this world which often times can be unforgiving. These two texts in theme of finding identity have similar narratives but set in different times. Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ talks about the struggle of African Americans as a whole and how lost they are in some cases due to the fact that they have been taken away from their home land and given new identities and new names that they are not familiar with and is not theirs. Langston Hughes is reminding us of this and who African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s are and where they came from and that they are not just slaves but much much more. Ã¢â¬Å"In House on Mango StreetÃ¢â¬ it is about the life of Esperanza and dealing with life and people not understanding her in particular because she is a woman and she does not have the same freedoms as men do and also because she is not wealthy and lives in a terrible neighborhood people do not understand her as well. Being Hispanic in a tough neighborhood does not let her have the same opportunities as white people in rich or good neighborho ods and she states that they look down on her when they do look at her. She spends the whole novel contemplating leaving home to find herself somewhere else because her barrio is not meant for that. Identity is a huge part of minorities an culture too but as you can see many minorities have trouble finding their identity in America the land of mixed cultures. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ author Langston Hughes he tries to bring a comparison to the negro of his time in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s and the ancestors who were the first to start civilization in the first thousand years of modern civilization in Africa. He wants to African Americans to reconnect with their roots. People have been almost tricked to forget where they came from and their greatness building the pyramids and creating monuments that millions of people around the world marveled at. The denial of this and the act of taking the truth away and discriminating against African Americans is racism which some say is AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s original sin and what Langston Hughes is fighting against in his poem Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of Rivers.Ã¢â¬ His motive is to uplift African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s and to show them that they are worth more than what they were told to be, during the time of segregation and Jim Crow laws they still have a voice and a past to be proud of. In the poem Langston speaks from a voice of an ancestor saying the he too knows. Although never being in Africa he speaks as if he was from there and this is the new way of writing because Hughes as a black man now has a voice and can say what he please as well as the way of writing it has changed to a simpler form but still resonates with people just not the super wealthy and those who can read. In this poem the first three lines reiterates features of Africa. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve known rivers: IÃ¢â¬â¢ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow Of human blood and veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep.Ã¢â¬ Hughes is talking about the Nile River and he is saying that it is as old as the earth and that it is ingrained in us in our body and we are the earth. He said that his soul has grown deep and it means that he feels as if he is attached to the earth and he is part of it. Another river is the Euphrates which has given life to so many people used for bathing, sailing, and fishing but it has also been here for a long time. What he means by this line is that he along with Africans have been on earth for a long time. The last line talks about having a home in the Congo and he fell asleep with the sound of the river. I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen itÃ¢â¬â¢s muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve known rivers: Ancient, dusky rivers; My soul has grown deep like the rivers. Hughes continues to talk about the Nile and how it raised people and was such an influence on the lives of the Egyptians at the time when they were using it for every aspect of life and it was a catalyst for them being able to flourish without that they would not have been able to make the pyramids. Hughes then makes a comparison to moving down the Mississippi to with Abraham Lincoln to New Orleans and how from having a muddy bosom to being a golden sunset which could annotate the transition from slavery to being freed with the emancipation proclamation. Hughes finishes the poem by saying that he knows these rivers old rivers and those that are shadowy his soul being an African American male has history and runs deep like the rivers. Ã¢â¬Å"The House on Mango StreetÃ¢â¬ by Sandra Cisneros tells the tale of a young girl that is struggling to make it in America with hurdles that she has to go through. This text is different from Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ because Hughes speaks for an entire group of people who have been hurt and had their identity taken away from them and he is also trying to make a connection between the present day negro and the African of early civilizations. Ã¢â¬Å"The House on Mango StreetÃ¢â¬ it talks about one specific character but can be used for many generations of Hispanic women growing up in America and millions going through the same struggle today. Esperanza gives us her background at first and where she is living and how she got to mango street. Her father is always working and her mother is always at home watching over the kids, she has two younger brothers and one other sister. Esperanza is not very fortunate because she is not popular and it is hard for her to find a friend to tell secrets to. She has her sister but it is not the same due to the fact that her sister is younger than her and cannot cognitively have a conversation with her because she us so young. However, Esperanza is always stuck watching her little sister so she cannot do what her brothers do and play or focus on herself because she is so busy with her little sister. Another way her life is different is because of her ethnicity she details how others do not understand her and how she depicted them looking at her and her people from the outside and not understanding their way of life. Esperanza dictates how people vie her and people like her harshly and crit icize them for living the way do even though they are trying their best with what they can. Again we see in Ã¢â¬Å"The House on Mango StreetÃ¢â¬ like we did in Ã¢â¬Å"The Negro Speaks of RiversÃ¢â¬ that minorities struggle to identify themselves and feel the need to overcompensate for their lives and actions to feel better about themselves. This comparison is significant because to different races fear the same things and two different authors writing in different times can still have the same view of their people and America as a whole. Being misunderstood by others and even misunderstanding themselves is something that they have to deal with while trying to identify themselves to their own selves while they are being told what to do by many other people. Although the authors of these two different texts are of different sexes, different races, and writing in different periods the problem remains the same. As the quote from earlier still reigns true why do darker people suffer more across the world. History is repeating itself over and over maybe it is not the exact same way but if this is the result after decades of minorities living in America it is not a very good one and does not show progress at all. This question is part of a problem that is rooted deep in the heart of America racism that has been embedded in the psyche of Americans but has been hidden and for a big extent subtlety regarded as false or not prevalent. These two texts ring them to live without blatantly shouting it out but by bringing us in the lives of minorities in the past and present and shows America not as the great nation everyone believes it is but one of flaw and not perfect like the humans we are, and although it is not perfect and neither are we we must strive for perfection to make this country the best it can for all people.
Posted by Whitney Beaudry at 6:47 AM
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Strategic Analysis of LOREAL - Case Study Example The beauty and skin industry requires a company that is ready to work on the distribution channels and methods. The staff should have good knowledge of the market and ensure that the target groups are reached. 4. Build and protect your brand. The industry expects that anyone engaging in its practices offers only the products and services they can comfortably deliver. This ensures that quality is maintained and the effects of the products controlled. 5. Take advantage of the available industry resources and stay fresh through new innovative products and offerings. The industry has so much competition and any product coming into the market need to be outstanding and convincing enough for the customer to purchase it. LÃ¢â¬â¢OREAL offers a diverse range of products that include consumer products, professional products, luxury products, active cosmetics, and the body shop. The key objective of the diversified product portfolio ensures that everyone all over the world has easy access to LÃ¢â¬â¢OREAL products through a presence in outlets. The beauty and skin industry has so many products with purposes. LÃ¢â¬â¢OREAL being a big company in the field ensures that any requirements regarding beauty and skin are catered for. In addition, LÃ¢â¬â¢OREAL is dedicated to ensuring that their many products will in one-way or another match anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal lifestyle. LÃ¢â¬â¢OREAL develops brands that fit a personÃ¢â¬â¢s power of purchase from the low end to the high end; different products at different prices. The company controls the product brands. This ensures that there is flexibility in operations. LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal produces diverse products to ensure they have enough to draw the attention of their target groups. The products include professional Salon Brands that include Matrix, Kerastase and Redken, luxury Brands such as Giorgio Arman, Ralph Lauren, Biotherm and Lancome, retail Brands that include Garnier, Maybelline and LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Paris and active cosmetics such as body shop, Vichy and La Roche.
Posted by Whitney Beaudry at 9:13 PM
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
The Persuasive Research Paper - Essay Example Others, however, praised the decision of the committee terming it as a timely and accurate. In as much as critics hinted several reasons to support their position, it remains indisputable that the honor was a service granted at the right time to the president. The inventor of this priceless tribute granted to Nobel peace prize holders was Alfred Nobel. The respect was a courtesy offered to reputable people who pledge for and work to restore fraternity among world nations. It is noteworthy that critics of ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s recognition consider that the president, by 2009, had insignificant achievement in creating fraternity among nations. They hint at the short service time that the president had, by then, and find it inadmissible to grant honor to the president for that. This argument is remains illogical when used to disapprove the honor granted to the president in 2009. Foreign policy debates were among the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s promises during his campaigns before his assumption of powe r. Restoring admirable relationship among world countries is unattainable without the art of conviction and deliberation. Among the greatest investments, that the president made to obtain power, was his superb articulation and conviction to boost the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign relations. ... Critics should detach the consideration of the short time of service from their argument since the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign relations debate was promising long before assumption of office. Critics against the honor highlight several nominees of the prize who were unsuccessful but, in their opinion, deserved the recognition. Critics point at icons as Joseph Stalin whose nominations in 1945 and 1948 received objection by the committee. Efforts by Stalin to create peace in the world by ending the second war were plausible enough, in the opinion of these critics, to attract the honor. In addition, critics to ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s honor attribute his youthful recognition of the president and cast doubts on the committeeÃ¢â¬â¢s decision. The fact that Obama gained the recognition on his first nomination makes the critics to believe that it was untimely. These claims, however, remain illogical from several perspectives. Advocating for peace among world states is a commitment that does not come with age but an ideology. Alfred Nobel attributed to peace as the most invaluable benefit that humankind would attain in life. That turned to be his ideology and the reason for the respect since his death in 1896. As a reminder to critics of the honor, as ideology is collection of doctrines that find basis on political, social or any other area of knowledge. It is a reflection of the social or political demands of the people pledging for it. There is no relationship between the age, of a society or an individual, and an ideology. Peace qualifies to be among the most recognizable political ideologies, globally, and that is incontrovertible. Arguing that Obama was youthful to receive the honor, therefore, is undeniably wrong and inconsiderate. There are success stories of young economists, politicians,
Posted by Whitney Beaudry at 12:47 AM
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Teenage Pregnancy Essay Challenges of Teenage Parenthood A. Parenthood Options B. Continuing Education C. Financial Problems V. Conclusion Teenage pregnancy is a major concern in todays society ;there are many ways to prevent teenage pregnancy, many people to get advice from, and many decisions a teenage parent must make. The statistics tell that the U. S. has the highest rate of teen pregnancy Teen Pregnancy Teen Pregnancy ; Parenting You sit there tense, your face is turning cherry red, your eyes are fixed on the little white machine, and you feel like the suspense is and births. More than 4 out of ten young women become pregnant at least once before they reach the age of 20-nearly one billion a year(Teen Pregnancy Facts and Stats 1). Teenage pregnancy has declined slowly but steadily. These recent declines reverse the 24-percent rise in the teenage birth rate from 1986 to 1991 (Teen Pregnancy Facts and Stats 1). Usually only one-third of teenage mothers receive a high school diploma. The rest of the mothers usually end Teen Pregnancy You sit there tense, your face is turning cherry red, your eyes are fixed on the little white machine, and you feel like the suspense is killing you, two minutes p on welfare. A majority of both boys and girls who are sexually active wish they had waited. Eight in ten girls and six in ten boys say they wish they had waited (Teen Pregnancy Facts and Stats 1). Many people are concerned about the problems teenage parents and their children face. The health risks for a teenage girl who becomes pregnant increase sharply. One of the concerns of teenage mothers is the health risk. Usually young women have Teen Pregnancy Teen Pregnancy Over the past two decades, the rates of teen pregnancy have grown dramatically. According to the Prevention of Teen Pregnancy, approximately every thirty-one seconds teenage pregnant in the more complications in pregnancy than older women. The most hazardous complication is low birth weight. One out of seven babies born to teenage mothers have a low birth weight (Hildebrand 88). Poor eating habits, smoking, or using alcohol or drugs, cause low birth weight. Premature babies and babies with low birth weights often have organs that havent fully developed, such as lungs, heart and brain. These babies get sick easier than normal weight babies. As a result Teen Pregnancy The situation is as follow: A teen girl (anywhere from the age thirteen to eighteen) finds herself in a sexual relationship with a male. The end result is from what was motioned above, teenage mothers are considered to be in the high-risk health category. They need good prenatal care as soon as they find out they are pregnant. A doctor, nurse, or other medical practitioner gives most of the information about nutrition. Prenatal care can help prevent pregnancy complications and improve ones chances of having a healthy baby. The best way to prevent teenage pregnancy, which is 100% effective, is abstinence. Most teenagers have a whole Teen pregnancy Teen Pregnancy There are a lot of teen mothers growing up in this world wondering, what if I would have stayed in school? What could I have become? life ahead of them and having a child will cause a lot of complications in your goals. Its not impossible for teenage mothers to complete high school, or try to reach their goals in life, but having a child could very well interfere with these goals. Another way of protection is condoms. There are a lot of protections out there, but these protections are not 100-percent reliable. There are a lot of places and people to go to Teen Pregnancy Teen Pregnancy There are a lot of teen mothers growing up in this world wondering, what if I would have stayed in school? What could I have become? for support and advice. In addition there are many organizations and hotlines a teenage mother can contact for advice and assistance. Parents and family are one alternative. There are a lot of teenagers that are afraid of their parents reactions. However, most parents are calmer and more supportive than teenagers expect. Most parents are shocked when the teenager comes and tells them that they are pregnant. Just give the parents time and they will try to give their Teen pregnancy Teen Pregnancy There are a lot of teen mothers growing up in this world wondering, what if I would have stayed in school? What could I have become? teenager the best advice that they know. The school nurse or counselor is another place to get advice. The counselor usually can gather up pamphlets and brochures about pregnancy. The counselor can also help the teenager remain in school. They are very supportive and understanding. Doctors and clinics are very important for a teenage parent to go to. There are a lot of home pregnancy tests available, but the doctor is a lot more reliable and gives
Posted by Whitney Beaudry at 1:19 PM
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Dear Kylie, I noticed your submission to Culture Magazine, regarding ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s great play Ã¢â¬Å"HamletÃ¢â¬ . Having recently studied Ã¢â¬Å"HamletÃ¢â¬ in Year 12 English, I think I can help answer one of your questions. You asked why is Hamlet regarded as a tragic hero and the play a classic tragedy? Before I can answer your question, you must first understand the difference between the meaning of tragedy today and what is meant by tragedy in drama. Whereas a tragedy in life may be considered something such as a death or accident, in drama a tragedy in drama is much more. In a tragedy, although the hero may be in conflict with an opposing force, the cause of his downfall falls ultimately on himself. This is usually because of a character defect Ã¢â¬â a Ã¢â¬Å"tragic flawÃ¢â¬ which causes him to act in a way which ends up bringing about his own misfortune, suffering and ultimately death. Ã¢â¬Å"HamletÃ¢â¬ is very much a tragedy, but it is also different, being a revenge tragedy where the hero is driven by the need for revenge, not unlike a modern day horror movie. Prince Hamlet is a tragedy of character where it is himself that brings his downfall, not fate. Well Kylie, a tragedy is usually a story of one person, with both the hero victims in the play usually of a high standing of society. This is especially the case in Ã¢â¬Å"HamletÃ¢â¬ , with his victims being King Claudius, Queen Gertrude, Polonious, Laertes, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, all being linked to the Royal Family of Denmark. A personality fault (the tragic flaw) causes the hero to act in a manner which brings about his own misfortune and eventually death, during which he lets the audience know he is dying by delivering a final speech. In Ã¢â¬Å"HamletÃ¢â¬ , it is his tragic flaw of his indecisiveness and inability to act, which brings his own suffering and misfortune. Had he been able to kill King Claudius in the beginning none of the suffering would have occurred. He also delivers his final speech telling the audience of his death, Ã¢â¬Å"I am dead Horatio. Wretched queen, adieu!Ã¢â¬ he exclaims after being poisoned by Laertes envenomed rapier. In a tragedy the pity and fear (known in drama as pathos) is ultimately replaced by an uplifting and suffering (known in drama as catharsis) HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s acts cause suffering but in the end ultimately achieve learning. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate death teaches the country of Denmark about ClaudiusÃ¢â¬â¢s murder and brings them under the reins of a new ruler Fortinbras of Norway.
Posted by Whitney Beaudry at 1:51 AM
Monday, November 11, 2019
Organizational behaviorÃ is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behavior within an organization. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and management; and it complements the academic studies ofÃ organizational theory and human resource studies Basic Functions Ã¢â¬â Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, staffing, leading/directing, and controlling/monitoring and motivation. * Planning :Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next five years, etc. ) and generating plans for action. * Organizing : Pattern of relationships among workers, making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. * Staffing : Job analysis, recruitment and hiring for appropriate jobs. * Leading/directing : Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. * Controlling/monitoring : Checking progress against plans. * Motivation :Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. History Ã¢â¬â * F. W. Taylor and Scientific Management * Fayol * Hawthorne Studies * Theory X and Y 1. F. W. Taylor and scientific Management Ã¢â¬â Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles: First. They develop a science for each element of a man's work, which replaces the oldÃ rule-of-thumbÃ method. Second. They scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could.Third. They heartily cooperate with the men so as to insure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed. Fourth. There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The m anagement take over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men. 2. Fayol Ã¢â¬â * Division of work Ã¢â¬â Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient. * Authority Ã¢â¬âManagers must be able to give orders. * Discipline Ã¢â¬â Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. * Unity of command Ã¢â¬â Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. * Unity of direction Ã¢â¬â Each group of organizational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan. * Remuneration Ã¢â¬â Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services. * Order Ã¢â¬â People and materials should be in the right place at the right time. * Scalar chain Ã¢â¬â The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks represents the scalar chain.
Posted by Whitney Beaudry at 2:23 PM
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behavior. Ã¢â¬ ¢Definition: Stereotypes assign similar characteristics to all members of a group, despite the fact that the group members may vary widely from one another. Ã¢â¬ ¢Characteristics: Ã¢â¬ ¢social-cognitive theories: Ã¢â¬ ¢our social world is very complex and presents us with too much information Ã¢â¬ ¢since our capacity to process information is limited, there is a need to simplify our social way Ã¢â¬ ¢one of the way to avoid information overload is social categorization Ã¢â¬ ¢these are stereotypes Stereotypes simplify information processing in social perception Ã¢â¬ ¢stereotypes are schemas as they: are energy-saving devices, automatically activated, stable and resistant to change, affect behavior. Ã¢â¬ ¢Not stable across cluture Studies COHEN Cohen presented participants with a videotape showing a woman having dinner with her husband. Half the participants were told that the woman was a waitress and the r est that she was a librarian. At a later memory test, participants showed better recall for stereotype- consistent information. Those who thought she was a waitress remembered her beer drinking.Participants who thought she was a librarian were more likely to remember that she was wearing glasses and was listening to classical music. Like the studies on the effects of schemas, CohenÃ¢â¬â¢s study shows that we are likely to notice and subsequently remember information which is consistent with our stereotypes. FISKE AND DYER Like all schemas, stereotypes are formed over time on the basis of relevant experiences. For Fiske and Dyer (1985), stereotype formation begins with the learning of independent schema elements. For example, the formation of a ender schema for Ã¢â¬ËfemaleÃ¢â¬â¢ begins with isolated elements such as Ã¢â¬Ëgirls dress in pinkÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëgirls play with dollsÃ¢â¬â¢ whereas, Ã¢â¬Ëboys dress in blue and play with carsÃ¢â¬â¢. With advancing age additi onal elements are added, such as information about gender-appropriate behaviours and work-related preferences. Eventually, strong associations form between all the various elements and a single schema emerges. Once formed, repeated practice in the use of the schema may lead to such levels of integration that it can be activated automatically and unconsciously seen then. Bargh Participants in this experiment were asked to complete a test involving 30 items.This task was presented to the participants as a language proficiency task. Each of the 30 items consisted of five unrelated words. For each item participants had to use four of the five words to form, as fast as possible, a grammatically correct sentence. There were two conditions in this experiment. In one, the task contained words related to and intending to activate the elderly stereotype (e. g. grey, retired, wise). In the other condition, the words used were unrelated to the elderly stereotype (e. g. thirsty, clean, private). After completing the experimental tasks, participants were directed towards the elevator.A confederate, sitting in the corridor, timed how long the participants took to walk from the experimental room to the elevator. Ã¢â¬ ¢Bargh et al. found that participants who had their elderly stereotype activated walked significantly more slowly towards the elevator than the rest of the participants. Priming of this stereotype must have taken place unconsciously. As Bargh et al. note, the task words did not directly relate to time or speed and no conscious awareness of the elderly stereotype was ever in evidence for the duration of the study. Illusory correlationThese researchers asked participants to read descriptions about two made-up groups (Group A and Group B). The descriptions were based on a number of positive and negative behaviours. Group A (the majority group) had twice as many members than Group B (the minority group). In the descriptions, Group A members performed 18 positive and 8 negative behaviours. Group B members performed 9 positive and 4 negative behaviours. So, for both groups, twice as much of the information involved positive, rather than negative, behaviours. Clearly, there was no correlation between group membership and the types of behaviours exhibited by the groups.However, when asked later, participants did seem to have perceived an illusory correlation. More of the undesirable behaviours were attributed to the minority Group B, than the majority Group A. Hamilton and GiffordÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation of their findings is based on the idea that distinctive information draws attention. Group B members and negative behaviours are both numerically fewer and therefore more distinct than Group A members and negative behaviours. The combination of Group B members performing negative behaviours, therefore, stands out more than the combination of Group A members performing such behaviours.This causes the illusory correlation. Ã¢â¬ ¢Explain social learnin g theory, making reference to two relevant studies. Social Learning theory: In particular social learning theorists emphasise the role of observation and imitation of role models. In general, social development is seen as a continuous learning process, rather than as happening in stages. -If children were passive witnesses to an aggressive display by an adult they would imitate this aggressive behavior when given the opportunity. -The researchers attempted to reduce this problem by pre-testing the children for how aggressive they were.They did this by observing the children in the nursery and judged their aggressive behaviour on four 5-point rating scales. It was then possible to match the children in each group so that they had similar levels of aggression in their everyday behaviour. The experiment is therefore an example of a matched pairs design. Controlled 24 in a group The findings support Bandura's Social Learning Theory. That is, children learn social behaviour such as aggre ssion through the process of observation learning Ã¢â¬â through watching the behaviour of another person.The findings from this and similar studies have been used in the argument that media violence might be contributing in some degree to violence in society. The obvious criticism of this argument is that there are many other factors influencing whether or not we are likely to imitate screen violence. One of the major factors is perhaps the level of aggression we already have, which might have been learned, in our family relationships or elsewhere. The major criticism of the Social Learning Approach to child development is its oversimplified description of human behaviour.Although it can explain some quite complex behaviour it cannot adequately account for how we develop a whole range of behaviour including thoughts and feelings. We have a lot of cognitive control over our behaviour and simply because we have had experiences of violence does not mean we have to reproduce such beh aviour. It is also worth noting that the Social Learning Approach has little room for the role of inherited factors or for the role of maturation in development. This theory assumes that humans learn behavior through observational learning Ã¢â¬â in other words, people can learn by watching models and imitating their behavior.Explain Attention: The person must first pay attention to the model. Retention: The observer must be able to remember that behavior has been observed. Motor reproduction: The observer has to be able to replicate the action. Coding/remember the act. Motivation: Learners must want to demonstrate what they have learned. Whether or not they like the model. Liking. Rewards/punishment. Identification. Consistency. Internalized outcome expectancies. Increases the likelihood of carrying out. If we identify with the model (we want to be like them) Bandura: Reinforcement is not necessary for learningVicarious- Unintentionally picking up something. Indirect learning. Un conscious. This theory assumes that humans learn behavior through observational learning Ã¢â¬â in other words, people can learn by watching models and imitating their behavior. Attention: The person must first pay attention to the model. Retention: The observer must be able to remember that behavior has been observed. Motor reproduction: The observer has to be able to replicate the action. Coding/remember the act. Motivation: Learners must want to demonstrate what they have learned. Whether or not they like the model. Liking. Rewards/punishment.Identification. Consistency. If we identify with the model (we want to be like them) Internalized outcome expectancies. Increases the likelihood of carrying out. Bandura: Reinforcement is not necessary for learning Vicarious- Unintentionally picking up something. Indirect learning. Unconscious. Conscious Control condition Ã¢â¬â The children were shown the film with the adult behaving aggressively towards the Bobo doll. Model-rewarded co ndition Ã¢â¬â Children saw the same film used in the control condition but after the aggression was over, a second adult appeared in the film to reward the aggressor with sweets and a soft drink.Bobo dolls are clown-like dolls with a weight in the bottom. They are designed in such a way as to always bounce back when knocked down. Model-punished condition Ã¢â¬â As the model-rewarded condition, but the second adult scolded and spanked the model for behaving aggressively. After viewing the film, all the children were taken individually into a playroom with several toys which included a Bobo doll and a mallet. While in the playroom, the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour was observed for a period of 10 minutes and any acts of aggression similar to those performed by the model were recorded.The control and the model-rewarded groups showed an equal level of aggressiveness towards the Bobo doll (2. 5 acts). The model-punished condition was associated with significantly fewer aggressive acts (1. 5 acts). However, when at a later stage the children were asked to reproduce the behaviour of the model and were rewarded for each act of aggression they displayed, they all (regardless of which original condition they were in) produced the same number of aggressive acts (3. 5 acts). BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s study exemplified and supported the following features of SLT.Vicarious (observational) learning Ã¢â¬â The children clearly learned specific aggressive behaviours by observing the adult model. The learning manifested during the second part of the study was based on vicarious reinforcement or punishment as the children were never rewarded or punished themselves. Reinforcement or punishment was necessary for performance not learning: All children behaved in an equally aggressive manner towards the Bobo doll when rewarded to do so. Selective imitation in 14-month-old infants (Gergely et al. , 2002) This experiment used 14-month-old infants as participants and involved two condition s.Hands-free condition Ã¢â¬â In this condition, the infants observed an adult place her hands on a table. Following this, she used a strange action to illuminate a light box: she bent over and pressed the box with her forehead. One week later, the same infants were given the opportunity to play with the box; 69% of them used their head to illuminate the light. Hands-occupied condition Ã¢â¬â Infants in this condition observed the adult perform the same strange action to illuminate the box. In this condition, however, the model was using her hands to hold a blanket around her shoulders.This rendered the hands unavailable for other actions. When given the opportunity one week later to play with the box, only 21% of the infants illuminated the light by using their head. The rest used their hands to press the light. Discussing their findings, Gergely et al. note that in the hands-occupied condition infants seem to have assumed that the adult used her head because she had to. But th is constraint did not apply to the infants. In the hands-free condition, the adult could have chosen to use her hands. She did not.The children seem to have assumed there must have been a reason for this choice, so they copied it. Ã¢â¬ ¢Discuss the use of compliance techniques (for example, lowballing, foot? in? the? door, reciprocity). Aronson et al. (2007) define compliance as Ã¢â¬Ëa form of social influence involving direct requests from one person to anotherÃ¢â¬â¢. A demonstration of the FITD technique (Freeman and Fraser, 1966) These researchers arranged for a researcher, posing as a volunteer worker, to ask a number of householders in California to allow a big ugly public-service sign reading Ã¢â¬ËDrive CarefullyÃ¢â¬â¢ to be placed in their front gardens.Only 17% of the householders complied with this request. A different set of homeowners was asked whether they would display a small Ã¢â¬ËBe a Safe DriverÃ¢â¬â¢ sign. Nearly all of those asked agreed with this requ est. Two weeks later these same homeowners were asked, by a Ã¢â¬Ëvolunteer workerÃ¢â¬â¢, whether they would display the much bigger and ugly Ã¢â¬ËDrive CarefullyÃ¢â¬â¢ sign in their front gardens. 76% of them complied with this second request, a far higher percentage than the 17% who had complied in the first condition.In a second study, Freedman and Frazer (1966) first asked a number of householders to sign a petition in favour of keeping California beautiful, something nearly everybody agreed to do. After two weeks, they send a new Ã¢â¬Ëvolunteer workerÃ¢â¬â¢ who asked these homeowners whether they would allow the big and ugly Ã¢â¬ËDrive CarefullyÃ¢â¬â¢ sign of the previous study to be displayed in their front gardens. Note that the two requests relate to completely different topics, but nearly half of the homeowners agreed with the second request.Again, this is significantly higher than the 17% of homeowners who agreed to display the sign in the absence of any pri or contact. But, how could the findings of the second experiment be explained? According to Freeman and Frazer (1966), signing the petition changed the view the homeowners had about themselves. As a result, they saw themselves as unselfish citizens with well-developed civic principles. Agreeing, two weeks later, to display the Ã¢â¬ËDrive CarefullyÃ¢â¬â¢ sign reflected their need to comply with their newly-formed self-image.Not only do commitments change us but also, to use GialdiniÃ¢â¬â¢s own expression, they Ã¢â¬Ëgrow their own legsÃ¢â¬â¢. Sherman (1980) called residents in Indiana (USA) and asked them if, hypothetically, they would volunteer to spend 3 hours collecting for the American Cancer Society. Three days later, a second experimenter called the same people and actually requested help for this organization. Of those responding to the earlier request, 31% agreed to help. This is much higher than the 4% of a similar group of people who volunteered to help when approa ched directly. Low-ballingIt involves changing an offer to make it less attractive to the target person after this person has agreed to it. A demonstration of lowballing (Burger and Cornelius, 2003) In this study, students were contacted by phone by a female caller and asked whether they would be prepared to donate five dollars to a scholarship fund for underprivileged students. There were three experimental conditions. The lowball condition Ã¢â¬â Students were told that those who contributed would receive a coupon for a free smoothie at a local juice bar. Students who agreed were then informed that the investigator realized she had run out of coupons.The students were asked if they would still be willing to contribute. 77. 6% agreed to make a donation in this condition. The interrupt condition Ã¢â¬â The caller made the same initial request as in the lowball condition. However, before the participants had a chance to give their answer, the caller interrupted them to let them know that there were no more coupons left. Only 16% of the participants made a donation in this condition. The control condition Ã¢â¬â Participants were simply asked to donate the five dollars without any mention of coupons. 42% made a donation in the control condition.The results support the view that the lowball technique is based on the principle of commitment. The technique is effective only when individuals make an initial public commitment. Once they have made this commitment, individuals feel obliged to act in accordance with it even when the conditions that led to them making the commitment have changed, (Cialdini, 2009). Ã¢â¬ ¢Discuss factors influencing conformity (for example, culture, groupthink, risky shift, minority influence). Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour (for example, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, Confucian dynamism).We have already defined the terms individualism and collectivism as used by Hofstede. Cultures di ffer with respect to how they socialize their members to develop identities that are either individually or collectively based. In individualistic cultures: -the personal is emphasized more than the social -persons are viewed as unique -individual autonomy and self-expression are valued -competitiveness and self-sufficiency are highly regarded. Societies high on collectivism are characterized by giving priority to the goals of important groups (e. g. xtended family, work group) and define oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity on the basis of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s membership of such groups. So, in collectivist cultures: -the social is emphasized more than the personal -the self is defined by long-standing relationships and obligations -individual autonomy and self-expression are not encouraged -there is more of an emphasis on achieving group harmony rather than on individual achievement. It is not that members of individualistic societies do not have the need to belong or that their identities are exclusivel y personal identities.SIT was after all developed in individualistic counties (e. g. UK, Australia) to explain primarily the behaviour of members of those societies. However, they are less focused on group harmony or doing their duty for the types of mostly traditional group that collectivist societies are based on (Brewer and Chen, 2007). This hypothesis was tested in a field experimentÃ¢â¬âexperimental study by Petrova et al. (2007). Their study involved over 3000 students of a US university. Nearly half were native US students and the rest were Asian students at the same university.All were sent an e-mail asking them to participate in a survey. A month later, the students received a second e-mail asking them whether they would agree to take part in an online survey. Petrova et al. obtained the standard FITD effect. The proportion of students who had agreed to the first survey and then agreed to the second was higher than the proportion who had initially agreed to the first sur vey. More importantly, the researchers also found that compliance was twice as strong with the native US students as it was with the Asian students for the second equest. This finding is even more remarkable if one takes into account that the first request led to a higher level of compliance among the Asian students. Bond and Smith (1996) carried out a meta-analysis of 133 conformity studies all using the Asch paradigm. The studies were carried out in 17 countries. The meta-analysis showed that more conformity was obtained in collectivistic countries like the Fiji Islands, Hong Kong and Brazil than in individualistic countries like the USA, the UK or France (Table 4. 2).Bond and SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s findings are consistent with the way that the individualism/collectivism dimension was portrayed earlier (pages 135Ã¢â¬â136). Members of collectivistic countries value conformity because it promotes supportive group relationships and reduces conflicts. This, agreeing with others in collecti vist societies is more likely to be viewed as a sign of sensitivity than one of submission to somebody elseÃ¢â¬â¢s will, which is the way it is often perceived in individualistic cultures (Hodges and Geyer, 2006). Many have argued that time is not defined and perceived in the same way everywhere.To a significant extent, the way humans experience time is influenced by their culture (Hall, 1959). In 2001, Hofstede proposed a classification of cultures based on their time orientation. In the mid-80s, Bond asked a number of Chinese social scientists to create a list of what Chinese people viewed as their basic values (Hofstede and Bond, 1988). A questionnaire, based on this list, was then administered to people in 23 countries. The outcome of this project was the emergence of a fifth cultural dimension, not related to the other four originally identified by Hofstede (page 000).The additional dimension was called Confucian dynamism because it reflected ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas about th e importance of perseverance, patience, social hierarchy, thrift and having a sense of shame. The new dimension was later renamed long-term vs short-time orientation. Cultures scoring high on this dimension show a dynamic, future-oriented mentality. These are cultures that value long-standing, as opposed to short-term, traditions and values. Individuals in such cultures strive to fulfil their own long-term social obligations and avoid loss of face. Cultures with a short-term view are not as concerned with past traditions.They are rather impatient, are present-oriented and strive for immediate results. In practical terms, the long-term versus short-term orientation refers to the degree to which cultures encourage delayed gratification of material, social, and emotional needs among their members (Matsumoto and Juang, 2008). Ã¢â¬ ¢Seven of the ten highest ranking countries on HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s time orientation dimension were in Asia. Western countries tended to be more short-term orie nted. In eastern countries, characterized by a long-time orientation, patience is valued more than in Western countries.Based on this, Chen et al. predicted that part of the Western mentality is to place a higher value on immediate consumption than an eastern mentality. They investigated this idea in an experimental study using 147 Singaporean Ã¢â¬Ëbicultural participantsÃ¢â¬â¢. This technique uses participants who have been exposed extensively to two different cultures (in this case, Singaporean and American) and assumes that both can affect behaviour depending on which is more actively represented in the mind at any particular moment. Chen et al. electively activated one or the other of the two cultures by presenting half the participants with a collage of easily recognizable photos which were relevant to Singaporean culture and the other half with a collage of photos relevant to US culture. Impatience was tested by having the participants perform an online shopping scenario i n order to purchase a novel. The book could be delivered either within four working days for a standard fee or next day for an additional charge. The extra money participants were willing to pay for faster delivery of the book was used as a measure of impatience.Chen et al. found that US-primed participants valued immediate consumption more than the Singaporean-primed participants. Strong support of cultural differences in time orientation comes from an impressive study by Wang et al. (2009). They surveyed over 5000 university students in 45 countries and compared them on time orientation. They found, for instance, that students coming from what they call long-term orientation cultures were also more likely to postpone immediate satisfaction and wait for bigger rewards later.Ayoun and Moreo (2009) used a survey method to investigate the influence of time orientation on the strategic behaviour of hotel managers. A questionnaire was posted to top-level hotel managers in the USA and Th ailand. Compared to US managers, Thai managers were found to place a stronger emphasis on longer-term strategic plans and a stronger reliance on long-term evaluation of strategy. Cultural differences in time orientation also seem to relate to everyday behaviours.Levine and Norenzayan (1999) measured how fast people walked a 60-foot distance in downtown areas in major cities, the speed of a visit to a post office, and the accuracy of clocks in 31 countries. They found that life pace, as indicated by the activities they measured, was fastest in countries like Switzerland, Ireland and Germany and slowest in Mexico, Indonesia, Brazil, and Syria. The last three studies are natural experiments and, in effect, observational studies. Their findings should, therefore, be interpreted with caution as no confident causal statements can be made in the absence of adequate extraneous variables.
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